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  1. Resource Intensity: Production of substrates like peat, coconut coir, or rockwool demands extensive water and energy, contributing to a significant environmental footprint. Reusability reduces resource consumption.

  2. Environmental Impact: Many organic substrates lead to deforestation and the loss of valuable ecosystems. Additionally, emissions from global distribution and packaging hinder sustainability goals. Reusing products minimizes environmental harm and safeguards biodiverse landscapes, often vital carbon sinks.

  3. Waste Generation: Single-use substrates result in substantial waste after each crop cycle, often discarded in landfills or incinerated. Substrates are challenging to separate from plants, leading to waste. Extensive packaging adds to the waste problem. Reusable alternatives reduce environmental harm and waste.

  4. Cost: Purchasing and replacing substrates present ongoing expenses for indoor farmers, with costs continually rising. Reusable options offer more cost-effective solutions.

  5. Nutrient Management: Achieving the right nutrient balance in substrates can be complex. Reusables simplify nutrient management, potentially enhancing plant growth.

  6. Disease and Pest Control: Substrates can harbor diseases and pests, complicating indoor pest management. Reusable superstructures help prevent these issues.

  7. Supply Chain Reliance: Current farms heavily depend on incoming substrates, posing challenges in remote areas. Reusable products provide operational security.

  8. Water Management: Substrates require precise water management, with deviations leading to root diseases or nutrient imbalances. Reusable superstructures improve water use efficiency and reduce nutrient waste.

  9. Cleaning: Cleaning efforts contribute to contamination, water usage, and labor issues. Reusable products are designed for easy cleaning, reducing water and chemical inputs.

  10. Plant Variety: Growing companies often allocate significant R&D budgets to test various substrates for different plants. Reusable superstructures accommodate a wide range of plants using a single design.

The Challenges of Single-Use Substrates in Controlled Environment Agriculture:

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To address these challenges, we collaborate with growers and technology firms globally to eliminate the need for conventional substrates, ensuring that indoor farming fulfills its promise of being a fully sustainable method for food production.


Discovered the need to replace single-use substrates


WINNER Innovate UK 

Young Innovators Award


GyroCup developed, with over 150 iterations

 Patent Applied 

WINNER Innovate UK Next Steps Award



GyroCup tested with 

partners around the UK, 

manufacturing facility set up


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